Coronavirus infection poses an increased threat primarily to the elderly, but young patients with severe complications often end up in the hospital. Researchers at the American Mayo Clinic have named diseases that increase the risk of a severe course in patients under 45 years of age.
During the study, experts analyzed the medical records of more than 9.8 thousand patients who were hospitalized with coronavirus infection from March to September 2020. Scientists compared data on the mortality of patients and chronic diseases that were diagnosed before infection.
The authors of the study identified 36 different conditions that have the strongest association with complications and mortality in COVID-19?. In patients under 45 years of age, a history of oncological diseases turned out to be key risk factors – in such patients, there is more than a threefold probability of death. Chronic neurological disorders, coronary heart disease, hematological and endocrine diseases also significantly worsen the chances of recovery.
It is noteworthy that the association of cancer with an increased risk of mortality was found only in young patients, in older people it was much weaker.
Scientists also found that COVID-19 poses a greater threat to people with mental illness, including schizophrenia, and developmental disabilities. The study also confirmed the influence of belonging to race and ethnic groups: the highest risk of death from coronavirus infection was found in Asians, although they were few in this cohort, only 4.1%. In second place are black patients, in third are Hispanics.
Earlier, scientists from the University of Oxford analyzed the hospitalization and mortality rates of people in England who are included in the register of patients with learning disabilities, including people with Down syndrome and cerebral palsy. On average, the risk of hospitalization in such people was 5.3 times higher compared to patients who do not have such diseases. The probability of death is 8.2 times higher.
Scientists were especially shocked by the mortality rates among people with Down syndrome – they are 36 times more likely to die from COVID-19 than the risks of people without this diagnosis.